Malignant tumors hijack the circulatory system by forming new blood vessels to sustain tumor growth in a process called angiogenesis. Newly targeted immunotherapies are geared towards interfering with pro-angiogenic signals from tumors, aiming to delay their growth and even cause them to shrink. Anti-angiogenic immunotherapy also prevents large tumors from metastasizing. Drugs which induce oxygen starvation primarily act through the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway.1
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1. R.R. Ramjiawan, et al., "Anti-angiogenesis for cancer revisited: Is there a role for combinations with immunotherapy?" Angiogenesis
20(2): 185-204, 2017.